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CIRCULAR TURNINGS AND BANKING OF ROADS
When vehicles go through turnings, they travel along a nearly circular arc. There must be some force which will produce the required acceleration. If the vehicle goes in a horizontal circular path, this resultant force is also horizontal. A vehicle of mass M moving at a speed v is making a turn on the circular path of radius r. The external forces acting on the vehicle are (i) weight Mg (ii) Normal contact force (iii) friction f,. Friction is not always reliable at circular turns if high speeds and sharp turns are involved. To avoid dependence on friction, the roads are banked at the turn so that the outer part of the road is somewhat lifted up as compared to the inner part.
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