Gutzon Borglum, the brilliant, nationalistic American sculptor built a 1/12 scale plaster model of the monument to plan the work on the mountain. One inch on the model represented one foot on the sculpture. The scale model was modified nine times and is notable because it depicts the four presidents from the waist up—the final monument, as you can see, features only their heads and a bit of clothing. Using this model, Borglum with a crew of over 400, carved the four presidents over 14 years. Coinciding as it did with the Great Depression, the memorial came to represent, for many, the hopes of a young, struggling nation eager to be recognized on the world stage.